After you've researched and your ideas are more developed, it's time to write a second plan. This one might be a detailed point-by-point outline complete with paragraphs and topic sentences. How much detail you can include will depend on how developed your knowledge and ideas are. You can also return to your initial plan and revise it.
When you have an outline, make a few rough notes to get the introduction and conclusion started. Start thinking about:
Do this last, as you can't know how you're going to introduce or conclude something until you're clear about what you're going to say.
YES. Writing is a means of thinking and working out ideas. A 'writing-as-you-go' approach helps you to avoid a 'split' process, where you do lots of reading, defer writing until the last minute, and so experience a lot of confusion.
During each study session, set yourself a goal and
spend 5-10 minutes writing. As you think through ideas, try expressing them in short paragraphs. You
might produce some that are well-developed and require little revision. Other
fragments might require a lot of rewriting. That's fine—the point is, you're
not starting with a blank page.
Use the split-page notemaking method to make notes and write as you read. In addition to noting specific information, write your comments and ideas. You don't have to write perfect sentences, but writing-as-you-go can mean that by the time you're ready to write a first draft, you'll already have a framework of notes and comments to build on.
As you read, write in response to these questions:
Try freewriting (or 'stream-of-consciousness' writing) – a technique in which you write continuously for a set period of time. Write in full sentences and don't worry about spelling or grammar. If you can't think of what to write, don't slow down, just repeat the last phrase you wrote. Freewriting is often used to collect initial thoughts and ideas on a topic, often as a preliminary to formal writing. It is also a great way to overcome writer's block.
Emerson, L (ed) 2005, Writing Guidelines for Social Science Students, Dunmore Press, Victoria.
Fletcher, C 1995, Essay clinic: a structural guide to essay writing, Macmillan, Melbourne.
Monash University Learning Support 2009, Thinking strategies: Learning Support for Higher Degree Research Students, Monash University accessed 17 August 2010 <http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/hdr/build/3.1.7.html>
Roehampton University 2010, Essay planning: Essaying academic writing, Roehampton University, accessed 28 July 2010 <http://studentzone.roehampton.ac.uk/howtostudy/academicwriting/unit5/index.html>
Taylor, G 2009, A student's writing guide: how to plan and write successful essays, Cambridge University Press, New York.