Citations may be placed at the end of a sentence (before the concluding punctuation) in brackets:
The theory was first developed by Browne (Gibbs 1981).
Another way of including a reference in your text is to integrate the author’s surname into your sentence, followed by the year of publication and page number, in parentheses:
Gibbs (1981, p. 89) states that Browne was the first to develop the theory of...
The following extract is an example of a paragraph using the Harvard system:
Criticisms aside, Durkheim’s work was an extraordinary contribution to the sociology of religion, perhaps more specifically to a greater understanding of the origins of collective morality. Gardner (1987, p. 74) makes an extremely important point about Durkheim when he writes “Durkheim had a lifelong interest in morality . . . For Durkheim morality was the centre and end of his work and society itself was the end and source of morality” . For Durkheim, the nature of morality was the nature of social solidarity. In The Elementary Forms Durkheim defined religion as the main expression of the deep moral sentiments inspired by society in individuals. His interest in the moral substratum of the modern social order expressed concern with the moral consequences of modernisation (Toles 1993).
Write the text word for word and place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. The author, date and page number must be included.
"Australia is a settler society" (Hudson & Bolton 1997, p. 9).
Restate the original words/ idea in your own words. The author, date and page number(s) must be included.
Wartime textile rationing was imposed through a coupon system, which meant garments now had two costs: their value in monetary units and in coupons (McKernan 1995, p. 152).
You do not need to include page numbers because it is the entire work you are referring to:
Larsen and Greene (1989) studied the effects of pollution in three major cities...
The List of References in the Harvard system is a single list of all the books, journal articles and other sources you have referred to throughout your assignment.
Each reference list item requires certain bibliographic details outlined in the tables below. For example, in in the case of a book, 'bibliographical details' refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (some of these details may vary depending on the book).