Here are additional examples of different in-text citations and their conventions.
Always mention both authors:
Dixon and Leong (1996) describe the Gothic influence on William Morris’s work and his philosophy.
William Morris was inspired by Gothic art (Dixon & Leong, 1996).
State all authors when first mentioning the source. Subsequent references to the source are shortened to the first surname followed by ‘et al.’ (et al. = and others).
Smith, Jones, Banks, Ho and Sayre (1995)
Smith et al. (1995) . . .
Only mention the first author in the body of the text:
Warner et al. (1995) define design as a process of problem solving (p.2).
Organisations or associations as author
If an abbreviation is commonly used, write out the full name first with the abbreviation in brackets. For subsequent entries, use the abbreviation.
In 1995, The University of New South Wales, College of Fine Arts (UNSW COFA), School of Design Studies continued its successful Partners in Design Project.
Twenty-one industry partners were involved in the project (UNSW COFA, 1995).
For an article or chapter put the title in “double quotation marks” followed by the year. For a journal, book, brochure or report, italicise the title.
According to the Code of Ethics for Research in Education (1995), “what constitutes legitimate, and therefore morally acceptable, moral reasoning is the subject of dispute” (p.1).
If you wish to cite a specific performance, art show, poetry reading, etc., you need only cite the specific date and location in the text—no reference list entry is needed. For example:
When several works of Georgia O'Keefe were displayed together for the first time (The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC, March 1999) . . .
This includes ancient texts and very old works. Many will be translated and will not have page numbers or a date of publication.
To indicate you referred to a translated text:
(Aristotle, trans. 1931)
To indicate you read a subsequent version of the original. Put the original version first:
To indicate a verse, line or chapter in a classical text (Usually consistent across all versions and translations):
1 Cor.13:1 (Revised Standard Version)
This includes letters, memos, a telephone conversation etc; usually information which is not recoverable or easily verified. Do not include an entry in the list of references. If you wish to refer to lectures, public talks or unpublished plenaries, seek the permission of the speaker or convener before including their words or ideas in your assignment. Give initials, surname, and date.
(B. Smith, personal communication, March 13, 2001)
To cite an electronic source which provides author and page numbers (such as electronic journal articles) follow the same conventions as for other sources:
(Cheek & Buss 1981, p. 332)
(Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3)
To cite an electronic source which has no page numbers, use the paragraph number (remember to include the paragraph symbol):
(Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)
To cite an electronic source with no page numbers or paragraph numbers, put the heading of the section and the number of the paragraphs following it that locates the quotation:
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)
To cite an electronic source with no author, cite the title of the document:
(Guggenheim:future exhibitions, 2004)
For more information on how to use electronic sources in-text please visit: http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html